The endoscopic urologic

The need to perform an invasive endoscopic examination is the possibility to exclude a neoplastic disease is not always diagnosed by imaging (ultrasound, tc, magnetic resonance)
The urological endoscopy, cystoscopy or urethrocystoscopy and ureterorenoscopy diagnostics, allows you to view from inside the urethra, bladder, and kidney calicopieliche uretreri and cavities.
For the lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) the cystoscope is used.
For the high urinary tract (ureters and pelvis) the ureterorenoscopio.


(More properly called urethrocystoscopy) plays a diagnostic role and follow up for bladder cancer, which is important in clinical practice urologist.
Cystoscopy allows the specialist to evaluate the urethra, bladder and all the walls.
The examination is performed on an outpatient basis, no need for anesthesia (sedation) except in special cases, or the patient’s request.
Involving no preparation on the part of the patient, but one antibiotic prophylaxis.

Ureterorenoscopy rigid and flexible diagnostic

Diagnostic ureteroscopy first were made earlier by Marshall in ’64 and then from Lyon nel’78, but the first operational by Perez Castro nel’80.I rapid progress, and the development of increasingly thinner rigid ureteroscopes did disappear open surgery with regard to the ureteral stones. Currently simplicity, safety and efficacy of an exploration of the ureter and renal pelvis in the vision was made possible by the development of ureteroscopes rigid, semi-rigid, and flexible. The latter for precise control of the renal pelvis and chalices.
this screening is always performed under sedation or anesthesia or selective locoregional (spinal). can not be performed in the clinic, it requires day hospital or a maximum of a 2-day hospital stay.
The indication for this diagnostic test are limited and are getting confirmation to a possible suspect, after a URO contrast CT, for endoluminal tumors and to perform a possible biopsy.
Another indication in the case of unilateral hematuria, with negative selective cytology, and the absence of lithiasic formations.
Complications such as ureteral stenosis is very rare because the exam is fairly quick, and trauma ureteral modest in the hands of a skilled operator.

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